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22 августа 2018 г. 07:14

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SAN FRANCISCO Men's Nike Air Max 90 VT Shoes Pure White Australia , May 13 (Xinhua) -- A research using time-lapse photography in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, a thousand kilometers from the Ecuadorian mainland, suggests the presence of a key multilevel "trophic cascade" involving top- and mid-level predators as well as urchins and algae.

 

In the rocky, species-rich subtidal area, of about 133,000 square km off the Galapagos Islands, researchers examined the relationships among predatory fishes Men's Nike Air Max 90 Essential Shoes Coal Gray Australia , urchins, the algae that the urchins graze on, and how the interactions among them were influenced by se

 

a lions and sharks at the top of the food chain.

 

The key question for researchers: Do predators high up in the chain affect the abundance of the "primary producers" at the bottom -- in this case algae -- thus causing a trophic cascade?

 

Using GoPro cameras, researchers from Oregon State University (OSU) and Brown University made a number of key findings regarding triggerfish, Spanish hogfish, pencil urchins, the larger green urchins and algae Men's Nike Air Max 90 BR Breathe Breeze Black Australia , including:

 

-- Among a diverse guild of predatory fishes, triggerfish can control the abundance of pencil urchins and thus also the abundance of algae the urchins eat; the experiments showed grazing on algae was eliminated when the pencil urchins were exposed to triggerfish predation, meaning triggerfish are a candidate for protection because of their strong effects on ecosystem function.

 

-- Green urchins eat more algae than pencil urchins yet are not the urchin prey of choice for predatory fish.

 

That suggests those fish aren' t controlling green urchin populations and thus that green-urchin barrens in the Galapagos - areas where the urchins have stripped the sea floor of algae - are not the result of the overfishing of predatory fish.

 

-- Spanish hogfish are not major predators of urchins as earlier, survey-based research had suggested.

 

Hogfish mainly eat the smaller pencil urchins and also interfere with triggerfish feeding on large pencil urchins; the hassling hogfish cause triggerfish to spend more time to eat an urchin and in some cases force a fumble.

 

Statistical modeling of predation on pencil urchins indicates that two types of interference behavior -- the hogfish harassing the triggerfish, and sea lions and sharks startling the triggerfish -- could slow the rate of triggerfish predation on pencil urchins.

 

The researcher who did the modeling, Mark Novak of the College of Science at OSU, noted that historically Men's Nike Air Max 270 Flyknit Shoes Triple Black Australia , ecologists believed complex food webs typical of the tropics were more immune to trophic cascades than the simpler food webs of higher latitudes.

 

However, studies such as this one now suggest that is not the case, and that the dynamics of complex food webs can be as predictable as simpler ones provided you understand who the relevant players are.

 

"When the backbone of the system is strong, you can connect the top of the food chain to the bottom despite all of the indirect effects and the complexities of the system," Novak, assistant professor of integrative biology, was quoted as saying in a news release.

 

"It's important to know individual species identity when you've got a suite of consumers. The hogfish Women's Nike Air Max 270 Flight Gold Shoes Australia , the triggerfish, they all feed on very similar things, yet one of the two is most important, the one that drove that first link."

 

The findings, published in PLOS One, are important because they include detailed information about interactions in a complex food web, and crucial to knowing how to cause Men's Nike Air Max 270 Shoes White Australia , prevent or reverse population changes within the web.

 

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WUHAN, Oct. 2 (Xinhua) -- Venus Williams won an absolute thriller, even saving match point, against her sister's US Open conqueror Men's Nike Air Max 97 Ultra Shoes Black Australia , Roberta Vinci, to reach the Wuhan Open final on Friday.

 

Vinci has been having a career revival in recent weeks, including making the semifinals in Wuhan this week and, a few weeks ago, reaching her first Grand Slam final at the US Open. During that run in New York she defeated Serena Williams, ending the world No.1's quest for the calendar year Grand Slam.

 

On Friday, big sister got some family revenge Women's Nike Air Max 97 Ultra' 17 Shoes Rose Gold Australia , but it wasn't easy by any means - after letting a 3-0 lead go en route to dropping the first set 7-5, Williams went right to the grind, finding the range on her big serve and groundstrokes more and more to take the second set 6-2, and go up 5-2 in the third.

 

Vinci wasn't done. She came alive again, winning the next four games in a row to go up 6-5 and have a chance to serve for the match. She even got to match point in that 6-5 game, going up 40-30.

 

But the No. 15-seeded Italian missed her trademark backhand slice into the net to miss that match point and Williams pounced, ripping a pair of huge groundstrokes in the next two points to break back.

 

Williams ripped a huge swing forehand volley to go up 6-4 in the tie-break Balenciaga X Nike Air Max 97 Shoes Triple Black Australia , her own first match point, and Vinci missed a forehand wide to give the former world No. 1 a tense 5-7, 6-2, 7-6(4) victory.

 

"Oh wow, I'm so excited to play the final!" Williams said in her on-court interview. "That was my dream when I came to this tournament, to play the final and have a chance for the title here in Wuhan.

 

"Roberta played so well today - she had match point - so it was lucky for me to win this match."

 

The match statistics told the story. Not only was Williams more aggressive overall, hitting twice as many winners in the match Men's Nike Air Max 97 Triple White Australia , 48 to 24, but she also h. Jerseys Cheap   Jerseys Wholesale   Cheap MLB Jerseys   Cheap Replica Jerseys   Cheap Custom NHL Jerseys   Cheap NFL Jerseys Free Shipping   Cheap College Soccer Jerseys   Custom MLB Jerseys Wholesale   Cheap NFL Jerseys From China   Throwback NFL Jerseys China 

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